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Template:Infobox Writing system Template:Contains Deseret text The Deseret alphabet (Deseret: ๐”๐ฏ๐‘…๐จ๐‘‰๐ฏ๐ป or ๐”๐ฏ๐‘†๐ฒ๐‘‰๐ฏ๐ป) is a sound-based alphabet developed in the mid-19th century by the board of regents of the University of Deseret (later the University of Utah) under the direction of Brigham Young, second president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

In public statements, Young claimed the alphabet was intended to replace the traditional Latin alphabet with an alternative, more phonetically accurate alphabet for the English language. This would offer immigrants an opportunity to learn to read and write English, he said, which is often less phonetically consistent than many other languages. Similar experiments were not uncommon during the period, and some of the better-known results include Pitman Shorthand and (much later) the Shavian alphabet.

Young also prescribed the learning of Deseret to the school system, stating "It will be the means of introducing uniformity in our orthography, and the years that are now required to learn to read and spell can be devoted to other studies"[1].

Development and useEdit

The Deseret alphabet was developed primarily by a committee made up of the university's board of regents and church leaders Parley P. Pratt and Heber C. Kimball. The two main contributors to the alphabet's character development were Pratt and George D. Watt, a local expert on shorthand systems.

Deseret second book

Sample from the Deseret Second Book, printed in 1868. The first four words (plus part of the fifth) read "One of the worst habit[s]" (The first four words phonetically read "W-u-n ah-v thee w-u-r-s-t")

The Deseret alphabet may have been inspired by or even based upon Michael Hull Barton's phonetic alphabet he published out of Boston and Harvard from 1830-1832. Originally a Quaker, Barton was baptized a Mormon in Portsmouth, New Hampshire about October 1831 (during his phonetic alphabet experiment), but within a few months then converted to Shakerism, although he continued to meet with early Mormon leaders until at least 1844[2]. The alphabet went through at least three major revisions during its first few years.

At least four books were published in the new alphabet: The First Deseret Alphabet Reader, The Second Deseret Alphabet Reader, The Book of Mormon, and a Book of Mormon excerpt called "First Nephi-Omni". Additionally published in the Deseret News were various articles and passages from the New Testament, which were printed on a press obtained by Orson Pratt.

Considerable non-printed material in the Deseret alphabet still exists, including one headstone in Cedar City, some coinage, letters, diaries, and meeting minutes. Pratt supervised the transcription of the complete Bible and the Doctrine and Covenants. One of the more curious items found in the Deseret alphabet is an English-Hopi dictionary.

Despite heavy promotion, the Deseret alphabet was never widely adopted. This reluctance was partly due to prohibitive costs; Pratt estimated that the cost of printing a regular library would be over one million dollars. Interest nonetheless continues among hobbyists who generally produce material for private consumption. With modern computer systems lowering the costs associated with typesetting, new material in the Deseret alphabet occasionally appears.

Table of glyphsEdit

File:1860 Utah $10 gold piece.jpeg

The Unicode Standard version 3.1 (effective March 2001) includes the Deseret alphabet in positions 10400 to 1044F; version 4.0 adds the letters Oi and Ew.

Capital
Hex Decimal Glyph Name
10400 66560 ๐€ 25px Long I
10401 66561 ๐ 25px Long E
10402 66562 ๐‚ 25px Long A
10403 66563 ๐ƒ 25px Long Ah
10404 66564 ๐„ 25px Long O
10405 66565 ๐… 25px Long Oo
10406 66566 ๐† 25px Short I
10407 66567 ๐‡ 25px Short E
10408 66568 ๐ˆ 25px Short A
10409 66569 ๐‰ 25px Short Ah
1040A 66570 ๐Š 25px Short O
1040B 66571 ๐‹ 25px Short Oo
1040C 66572 ๐Œ 25px Ay
1040D 66573 ๐ 25px Ow
1040E 66574 ๐Ž 25px Wu
1040F 66575 ๐ 25px Yee
10410 66576 ๐ 25px H
10411 66577 ๐‘ 25px Pee
10412 66578 ๐’ 25px Bee
10413 66579 ๐“ 25px Tee
10414 66580 ๐” 25px Dee
10415 66581 ๐• 25px Chee
10416 66582 ๐– 25px Jee
10417 66583 ๐— 25px Kay
10418 66584 ๐˜ 25px Gay
10419 66585 ๐™ 25px Ef
1041A 66586 ๐š 25px Vee
1041B 66587 ๐› 25px Eth
1041C 66588 ๐œ 25px Thee
1041D 66589 ๐ 25px Es
1041E 66590 ๐ž 25px Zee
1041F 66591 ๐Ÿ 25px Esh
10420 66592 ๐  25px Zhee
10421 66593 ๐ก 25px Er
10422 66594 ๐ข 25px El
10423 66595 ๐ฃ 25px Em
10424 66596 ๐ค 25px En
10425 66597 ๐ฅ 25px Eng
10426 66598 ๐ฆ 25px Oi
10427 66599 ๐ง 25px Ew
Lowercase
Hex Decimal Glyph Name
10428 66600 ๐จ 25px Long I
10429 66601 ๐ฉ 25px Long E
1042A 66602 ๐ช 25px Long A
1042B 66603 ๐ซ 25px Long Ah
1042C 66604 ๐ฌ 25px Long O
1042D 66605 ๐ญ 25px Long Oo
1042E 66606 ๐ฎ 25px Short I
1042F 66607 ๐ฏ 25px Short E
10430 66608 ๐ฐ 25px Short A
10431 66609 ๐ฑ 25px Short Ah
10432 66610 ๐ฒ 25px Short O
10433 66611 ๐ณ 25px Short Oo
10434 66612 ๐ด 25px Ay
10435 66613 ๐ต 25px Ow
10436 66614 ๐ถ 25px Wu
10437 66615 ๐ท 25px Yee
10438 66616 ๐ธ 25px H
10439 66617 ๐น 25px Pee
1043A 66618 ๐บ 25px Bee
1043B 66619 ๐ป 25px Tee
1043C 66620 ๐ผ 25px Dee
1043D 66621 ๐ฝ 25px Chee
1043E 66622 ๐พ 25px Jee
1043F 66623 ๐ฟ 25px Kay
10440 66624 ๐‘€ 25px Gay
10441 66625 ๐‘ 25px Ef
10442 66626 ๐‘‚ 25px Vee
10443 66627 ๐‘ƒ 25px Eth
10444 66628 ๐‘„ 25px Thee
10445 66629 ๐‘… 25px Es
10446 66630 ๐‘† 25px Zee
10447 66631 ๐‘‡ 25px Esh
10448 66632 ๐‘ˆ 25px Zhee
10449 66633 ๐‘‰ 25px Er
1044A 66634 ๐‘Š 25px El
1044B 66635 ๐‘‹ 25px Em
1044C 66636 ๐‘Œ 25px En
1044D 66637 ๐‘ 25px Eng
1044E 66638 ๐‘Ž 25px Oi
1044F 66639 ๐‘ 25px Ew

UnicodeEdit

Template:Unicode chart Deseret

ReferencesEdit

Template:Reflist

  • Bigler, David. 1998. Forgotten kingdom: the Mormon theocracy in the American West, 1847-1896. Spokane: Arthur Clark
  • Ivins, Stanley S. 1947. The Deseret Alphabet. Utah Humanities Review 1:223-39.
  • Thompson, Roger. 1982. Language planning in frontier America: The case of the Deseret Alphabet. Language Problems and Language Planning 6:45-62.
  • Wintersteen, Larry Ray. 1970. A History of the Deseret Alphabet. MA thesis, Brigham Young University.
  • Template:Citation.

External linksEdit

Template:Commonscat


Template:List of writing systems

de:Deseret-Alphabet ko:๋ฐ์„ธ๋ › ๋ฌธ์ž

it:alfabeto Deseret
Deseret second book

Won of the wurst rabbit to smoke or choo tube empty to use tube co, is sometimes cold, we

The letters are: Aa = ๐ˆ๐ฐ, รรก = ๐‚๐ช, Bb = ๐’๐บ, ฤŒฤ = ๐•๐ฝ, Dd = ๐”๐ผ, รรฐ = ๐œ๐‘„, Ee = ๐‡๐ฏ, ร‰รฉ = ๐๐ฉ, Ff = ๐™๐‘, Gg = ๐˜๐‘€, Hh = ๐๐ธ, Ii = ๐†๐ฎ, รรญ = ๐Œ๐ด, รŽรฎ = ๐€๐จ, Jj = ๐–๐พ, Kk = ๐—๐ฟ, Ll = ๐ข๐‘Š, Mm = ๐ฃ๐‘‹, Nn = ๐ค๐‘Œ, ลŠล‹ = ๐ฅ๐‘, Oo = ๐‰๐ฑ, ร’รฒ = ๐๐ต, ร“รณ = ๐„๐ฌ, ร”รด = ๐ƒ๐ซ, ร–รถ = ๐‹๐ณ, ล’ล“ = , Pp = ๐‘๐น, Rr = ๐ก๐‘‰, Ss = ๐๐‘…, ล ลก = ๐Ÿ๐‘‡, Tt = ๐“๐ป, รžรพ = ๐›๐‘ƒ, Uu = ๐Š๐ฒ, รšรบ = ๐…๐ญ, ลฎลฏ = , Vv = ๐š๐‘‚, Ww = ๐Ž๐ถ, Yy = ๐๐ท, Zz = ๐ž๐‘†, ลฝลพ = ๐ ๐‘ˆ.

See alsoEdit

Shavian

Scripts and Symbols
European scripts
Latin ยท Greek ยท Coptic ยท Cyrillic ยท Armenian ยท Georgian ยท Ogham ยท Runic ยท Glagolitic ยท Coptic ยท Linear B syllabary and Linear B ideograms ยท Phaistos Disc ยท Old Italic ยท Gothic ยท Cypriot

Supplementary European scripts
Latin 1-Supplement ยท Latin Extended-A ยท Latin Extended-B ยท Cyrillic supplement ยท ยท Latin Extended Additional Greek extended ยท Latin Extended-C ยท Georgian supplement ยท Cyrillic Extended-A ยท Cyrillic Extended-B ยท Latin Extended-D


Phoenitic symbols


Combining diacritics scripts


African scripts


Middle Eastern scripts


Central Asian scripts


South Asian scripts


Southeast Asian scripts


Philippine scripts


East Asian scripts


North American scripts
Cherokee (USA and Mexico) ยท UCAS (Canada)


Miscellaneous American scripts
Deseret ยท Shavian


Indescriptional American scripts
Osmanya


Other scripts


Punctuation


Alphanumeric symbols


Technical symbols


Combining diacritics symbols


Numbers and Digits


Mathematical symbols


Other symbols


Specials


Private Use


Surrogates


Noncharacters in Charts


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